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Factors related to recurrence of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: what do we learn from a multicentre study?
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Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with unknown aetiology. Its treatment is controversial and the recurrence rate is high. The objectives of this study were to examine the demographic, sociocultural and clinical characteristics observed among a large cohort of IGM patients from Turkey and to identify factors related to the recurrence of IGM. Methods: The study was designed as a multicentre retrospective study including 22 breast centres in Turkey. A total of 720 IGM patients are included in the study. Patient data were obtained from the patient's files and electronic records based on the study protocol. Patients’ demographic, clinical, radiological, treatment and recurrence of IGM related characteristics were recorded. Results: Our results revealed a statistically significant association between IGM recurrence and history of pregnancy, breastfeeding, breast infection and smoking (P < 0.05). Having a chronic systematic disease, oral contraceptive, analgesic and herbal medicine consumptions, treatment choice, education, place of birth and current residence were not found to be associated with IGM recurrence (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings show that history of pregnancy, breastfeeding, breast infection and smoking were the risk factors for IGM recurrence. As current treatment methods did not affect IGM recurrence, recurrence-related factors, such as breast infection and smoking, should be considered to eliminate while focusing on less invasive local treatment research.