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Overall elemental dry deposition velocities measured around Lake Michigan
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Overall dry deposition velocities of several elements were determined by dividing measured fluxes by measured airborne concentrations in different particle size ranges. The dry deposition measurements were made with a smooth surrogate surface on an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) and the ambient particle concentrations were measured with a dichotomous sampler. These long-term measurements were made in Chicago, IL, South Haven, MI, and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI, from December 1993 through October 1995 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study. In general, the dry deposition fluxes of elements were highly correlated with coarse particle concentrations, slightly less well correlated with total particle concentrations, and least well correlated with fine particle concentrations. The calculated overall dry deposition velocities obtained using coarse particle concentrations varied from approximately 12 cm s−1 for Mg in Chicago to 0.2 cm s−1 for some primarily anthropogenic metals at the more remote sites. The velocities calculated using total particle concentrations were slightly lower. The crustal elements (Mg, Al, and Mn) had higher deposition velocities than anthropogenic elements (V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb). For crustal elements, overall dry deposition velocities were higher in Chicago than at the other sites.