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Developments in water dams and water harvesting systems throughout history in different civilizations
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The use of water for domestic and agricultural purpose is not a new phenomenon. It has been used throughout centuries all over the world. After food, water is the basic component of human life and their settlement. This paper considers developments in water dams and water harvesting systems throughout history in different civilisations. The major component of this review consists of hydraulic dams during Pre-Historical Time, Bronze Ages (Minoan Era, Indus Valley Civilization, Early Ancient Egyptian Era, Hittites in Anatolia, and Mycenaean Civilization), Historical Period, (Pre-Columbian, Archaic Period, Classical Greek and Hellenistic Civilizations, Gandahara and Mauryan Empire, Roman Period, and early Chinese dynasties), Medieval times (Byzantine Period, Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties in China, Venetian Period, Aztec Civilization, and Incas) and Modern Time (Ottoman Period and Present Time). The main aim of the review is to present advances in design and construction of water dams and water harvesting systems of the past civilizations with reference to its use for domestic as well as agricultural purposes, its impact on different civilizations and its comparison to the modern technological era. In addition, emerging trends and perspectives are discussed.