Effects of interedge scattering on the Wigner crystallization in graphene nanoribbons
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We investigate the effects of coupling between the two zigzag edges of graphene nanoribbons on the Wigner crystallization of electrons and holes using a combination of tight-binding, mean-field Hubbard and many-body configuration interaction methods. We show that the thickness of the nanoribbon plays a crucial role in the formation of Wigner crystal. For ribbon widths smaller than 16 Å, increased kinetic energy overcomes the long-range Coulomb repulsion and suppresses the Wigner crystallization. For wider ribbons up to 38 Å wide, strong Wigner localization is observed for an even number of electrons, revealing an even-odd effect also found in the Coulomb-blockade addition spectrum. Interedge correlations are found to be strong enough to allow simultaneous crystallization on both edges, although an applied electric field can decouple the two edges. Finally, we show that Wigner crystallization can also occur for holes, albeit weaker than for electrons.