Wigner crystallization at graphene edges
Using many-body configuration interaction techniques, we show that Wigner crystallization occurs at the zigzag edges of graphene at surprisingly high electronic densities up to 0.8nm-1. In contrast with one-dimensional electron gas, the flatband structure of the edge states makes the system interaction dominated, facilitating electronic localization. The resulting Wigner crystal manifests itself in pair-correlation functions, and evolves smoothly as the edge electron density is lowered. We also show that the crystallization affects the magnetization of the edges. While the edges are fully polarized when the system is charge neutral (i.e., high density), above the critical density, the spin-spin correlations between neighboring electrons go through a smooth transition from antiferromagnetic to magnetic coupling as the electronic density is lowered.