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Assessment of construction techniques and material usage in Izmir rural houses
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The domestic architecture in the rural villages of ̄zmir comprises a unique built environment with their masonry wall textures, semi-open sofas, round tiled-hipped roofs, and chimneys, and represents an important part of the cultural and architectural heritage. This assessment is mainly based on field observations that focus on the architectural and structural layout of intact, damaged, and destroyed houses. During field observation and the analysis of data certain plan typologies and relationships between the geological formations of the region and choice of materials and construction techniques were observed. While load-bearing masonry and timber skeleton systems are common, extensive use of timber laces, stone, and fired or adobe brick masonry with mud mortar and timber frames infilled with masonry materials were frequently seen. Generally, round timber elements such as wall plates, laces, lintels, posts, and frames of flooring systems are used. Architectural degenerations in authentic houses, defective details and partially due to the earthquake-prone nature of the region seismicity have been evaluated. An overall approach for the preservation and sustainability of this heritage is suggested.