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Donor- and/or acceptor-substituted expanded radialenes: Theory, synthesis, and properties
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The synthesis of donor- (D) and/or acceptor (A)-expanded radialenes has been developed on the basis of readily available dibromoolefin (7), tetraethynylethene (10 and 20), and vinyl triflate (12) building blocks. The successful formation of D/A radialenes relies especially on (1) effective use of a series alkynyl protecting groups, (2) Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions, and (3) the development of ring closing reactions to form the desired macrocyclic products. The expanded radialene products have been investigated by spectroscopic (UV-vis absorption and emission) and quantum chemical computational methods (density functional theory and time dependent DFT). The combined use of theory and experiment provides a basis to evaluate the extent of D/A interactions via the cross-conjugated radialene framework as well as an interpretation of the origin of D/A interactions at an orbital level.