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Photocatalytic antimicrobial effect of TiO2 anatase thin-film–coated orthodontic arch wires on 3 oral pathogens
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The aim of this study was to introduce antimicrobial activity to stainless steel orthodontic arch wires by coating them with TiO2 in anatase form. Stainless steel (0.016 × 0.022 inch), D-rect (0.016 × 0.022 inch), and multistranded hammered retainer wires (0.014 × 0.018 inch) were coated with TiO2 anatase by the sol-gel dip coating method. The wires were assessed for their photocatalytic antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis. After illumination under UVA (315– 400 nm) at 1.0 mW/cm2 for 1 h, the reduction efficiencies of the anatase-coated arch wires were calculated by using colony-forming unit counts. All anatase-coated arch wires showed remarkable inhibitor effects against the test microorganisms under UVA. The most efficient wire on S. mutans was the stainless steel wire, with a 99.99% reduction in growth, but multistranded hammered retainer wire was the most active against both C. albicans and E. faecalis, with 98.0% and 91.68% reduction rates, respectively. TiO2-coated arch wires exposed to UVA illumination showed significant antimicrobial activity when compared with uncoated samples and coated, but not UVA-exposed, samples. Our results suggest that the antimicrobial effect of TiO2-coated arch wires in long-lasting orthodontic treatments would be beneficial for the prophylaxis of caries.