Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) powder produced by emulsion polymerization
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The effect of emulsion process formulation ingredients on the morphology, structure, and properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) powder has been considered in this study. PVC powder was extracted with ethanol and films were obtained by solvent casting from tetrahydrofurane. Characterization of powders, films, and ethanol extract was performed through FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, AFM, SEM, EDX analysis, methylene blue, and nitrogen adsorption. PVC powder was composed of spheres of a large particle size range from 10 nm to 20 μm as shown by SEM. The specific surface area of the PVC powder was determined as 16 and 12 m 2 g-1 from methylene blue adsorption at 25 °C and from N2 adsorption at -196 °C, respectively. AFM indicated the surface roughness of the films obtained by pressing the particles was 25.9 nm. Density of PVC powder was determined by helium pycnometry as 1.39 g cm -3. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that it contained carbonyl and carboxylate groups belonging to additives such as surface active agents, plasticizers, and antioxidants used in production of PVC. These additives were 1.6% in mass of PVC as determined by ethanol extraction. EDX analysis showed PVC particles surfaces were coated with carbon-rich materials. The coatings had plasticizer effect since, glass transition temperature was lower than 25 °C for PVC powder and it was 80 °C for ethanol extracted powders as found by using differential scanning calorimetry. These additives from polymerization process made PVC powder more thermally stable as understood from Metrom PVC thermomat tests as well. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.