Influence of surface modification of fillers and polymer on flammability and tensile behaviour of polypropylene-composites
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An intumescent system consisting of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER) as a carbonific agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite, Gördes II) as a synergistic agent was used in this study to enhance flame retardancy of polypropylene (FR-PP). Zeolite was incorporated into flame retardant formulation at four different concentrations (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt%) to investigate synergism with the flame retardant materials. Filler content was fixed at 30 wt% of total amounts of flame retardant PP composites. Zeolite and APP were treated with two different coupling agents namely, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol and (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane for investigation of the influence of surface treatments on mechanical properties and flame retardant performance of composites. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was used for making polypropylene hydrophilic. Flammability of FR-PP composites was measured by the determination of limiting oxygen index (LOI). The LOI values reached to a maximum value of 41% for mercapto silane treated APP:PER (2:1) PP composite containing 5 wt% zeolite. The tensile strength of composites was increased by the addition of MAPP and elongation at break of composites was increased with silane treatments.