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Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis on nitrogen ion implanted CoCrMo alloy material
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Staphylococcus epidermidis is the primary cause of medical device-related infections due to its adhesion and biofilm forming abilities on biomaterial surfaces. For this reason development of new materials and surfaces to prevent bacterial adhesion is inevitable. In this study, the adhesion of biofilm forming S. epidermidis strain YT-169a on nitrogen (N) ion implanted as well as on as-polished CoCrMo alloy materials were investigated. A medical grade CoCrMo alloy was ion implanted with 60 keV N ions to a high dose of 1.9 × 10 18 ions/cm2 at substrate temperatures of 200 and 400°C. The near-surface implanted layer crystal structures, implanted layer thicknesses, and roughnesses were characterized by XRD, SEM and AFM. The number of adherent bacteria on the surfaces of N implanted specimens was found to be 191 × 106 CFU/cm2 for the 200°C and 70 × 106 CFU/cm2 for the 400°C specimens compared to the as-polished specimen (3 × 106 CFU/cm2). The adhesion test results showed that S. epidermidis strain YT-169a adhere much more efficiently to the N implanted surfaces than to the as-polished CoCrMo alloy surface. This was attributed mainly to the rougher surfaces associated with the N implanted specimens in comparison with the relatively smooth surface of the as-polished specimen.