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Spatial and seasonal variations, sources, air-soil exchange, and carcinogenic risk assessment for PAHs and PCBs in air and soil of Kutahya, Turkey, the province of thermal power plants
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Atmospheric and concurrent soil samples were collected during winter and summer of 2014 at 41 sites in Kutahya, Turkey to investigate spatial and seasonal variations, sources, air-soil exchange, and associated carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The highest atmospheric and soil concentrations were observed near power plants and residential areas, and the wintertime concentrations were generally higher than ones measured in summer. Spatial distribution of measured ambient concentrations and results of the factor analysis showed that the major contributing PAH sources in Kutahya region were the coal combustion for power generation and residential heating (48.9%), and diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions (47.3%) while the major PCB sources were the coal (thermal power plants and residential heating) and wood combustion (residential heating) (45.4%), and evaporative emissions from previously used technical PCB mixtures (34.7%). Results of fugacity fraction calculations indicated that the soil and atmosphere were not in equilibrium for most of the PAHs (88.0% in winter, 87.4% in summer) and PCBs (76.8% in winter, 83.8% in summer). For PAHs, deposition to the soil was the dominant mechanism in winter while in summer volatilization was equally important. For PCBs, volatilization dominated in summer while deposition was higher in winter. Cancer risks associated with inhalation and accidental soil ingestion of soil were also estimated. Generally, the estimated carcinogenic risks were below the acceptable risk level of 10− 6. The percentage of the population exceeding the acceptable risk level ranged from < 1% to 16%, except, 32% of the inhalation risk levels due to PAH exposure in winter at urban/industrial sites were > 10− 6.