Place management of a creative city: The case of Izmir
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This study investigates how place management is used to render a creative city through the combination of soft factors as intangible characteristics and hard factors as tangible characteristics of the built environment. The study focuses on Izmir, Turkey; exploring its potential as an emerging creative city. The methodology is a descriptive analysis of recent urban design and planning activities of creative cities, reviews projects and strategies in Izmir. Findings provide a framework for place management tools and their strategic use for integration of art, design, creativity and knowledge in creative cities. Place management is used as a tool for image building and identity enhancement, and for quality of place to attract creative and knowledge workers. In the case of Izmir, hard factors triggered the formation process whereas soft factors have taken strengthen the initiative. However, both of them are yet not strong enough to creative public awareness and critical mass.