Cellular distribution of invadopodia is regulated by nanometer scale surface protein patterns
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Invadopodia are proteolytic structures formed by cancer cells. It is not known whether their cellular distribution can be regulated by the organization of the extracellular matrix or the organization of the golgi complex or whether they have an adhesion requirement. Here, we used electron beam lithography to fabricate fibronectin (FN) nanodots with isotropic and gradient micrometer scale spacings on K-casein and laminin backgrounds. Investigating cancer cells cultured on protein nanopatterns, we showed that (i) presence of FN nanodots on a K-casein background decreased percent of cells with neutral invadopodia polarization compared to FN control surfaces; (ii) presence of a gradient of FN nanodots on a K-casein background increased percent of cells with negative invadopodia polarization compared to FN control surfaces; (iii) polarization of the golgi complex was similar to that of invadopodia in agreement with a spatial link; (iv) local adhesion did not necessarily appear to be a prerequisite for invadopodia formation.