Germanene, Stanene and other 2D materials
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Germanene and stanene (also sometimes written stannene or called tinene) are 2D materials composed of germanium and tin atoms respectively arranged in a honeycomb structure similarly to graphene and silicene. The atomic structure of freestanding germanene and stanene is buckled like in the case of silicene (see Figure 2.4DFT calculations (Kresse and Joubert, Phys Rev B 59:1758-1775, 1999) performed by projector augmented wave (PAW) method (BlÖchl, Phys Rev B 50:17953-17979, 1994) and adopting PBE functional (Perdew et al. Phys Rev Lett 77:3865-3868, 1996) result in a lattice constants 4.06 and 4.67Å and buckling heights of 0.69 and 0.85Å for germanene and stanene respectively.