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Production of xylooligosaccharides by autohydrolysis of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shell
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Hazelnut shell (HS), husk and pruning residues were characterized and evaluated for xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production by autohydrolysis. HS contained the highest amount of xylan and yielded more XOS compared to other hazelnut residues. The temperature and holding time of HS autohydrolysis greatly influenced the composition of the liquor and the remaining solid. The highest XOS yield (62% of the feedstock xylan) was obtained at 190 °C and 5 min of holding time. At this temperature, 30 min of holding time was required to maximize the percentage of XOS with low degree of polymerization. Xylose, acetic acid and furfural concentrations increased with treatment severity. The concentrations of the products in the autohydrolysis liquors followed specific trends with changing severity factor (log Ro) values. Solubilization of xylan in the treatments enhanced the cellulose and lignin contents in the remaining solids.