Cyclic behavior of steel I-beams modified by a welded haunch and reinforced with GFRP
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Flange and web local buckling in beam plastic hinge regions of steel moment frames can prevent beam-column connections from achieving adequate plastic rotations under earthquake-induced forces. Reducing the flange-web slendemess ratios (FSR/WSR) of beams is the most effective way in mitigating local member buckling as stipulated in the latest seismic design specifications. However, existing steel moment frame buildings with beams that lack the adequate slendemess ratios set forth for new buildings are vulnerable to local member buckling and thereby system-wise instability prior to reaching the required plastic rotation capacities specified for new buildings. This paper presents results from a research study investigating the cyclic behavior of steel I-beams modified by a welded haunch at the bottom flange and reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymers at the plastic hinge region. Cantilever I-sections with a triangular haunch at the bottom flange and flange slendemess ratios higher then those stipulated in current design specifications were analyzed under reversed cyclic loading. Beam sections with different depth/width and flange/web slendemess ratios (FSR/WSR) were considered. The effect of GFRP thickness, width, and length on stabilizing plastic local buckling was investigated. The FEA results revealed that the contribution of GFRP strips to mitigation of local buckling increases with increasing depth/width ratio and decreasing FSR and WSR. Provided that the interfacial shear strength of the steel/GFRP bond surface is at least 15 MPa, GFRP reinforcement can enable deep beams with FSR of 8-9 and WSR below - to maintain plastic rotations in the order of 0.02 radians without experiencing any local buckling.