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Cu2ZnSnS4-based thin films and solar cells by rapid thermal annealing processing
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In this study, kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layers were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering deposition of metallic Cu-Zn-Sn precursors, followed by an annealing treatment in sulfur vapor atmosphere at 600 °C for 3 min using rapid thermal processing (RTP). Three types of stacked metallic films were prepared and included pre-annealing of Cu-Sn stacks in order to induce preferential Cu-Sn alloying. The chemical composition of the sulfurized films was obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) before and after etching the samples in KCN solution. All CZTS thin films are found to be Cu-poor and Zn-rich. Structural characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the impact of pre-annealing on the structural properties of the precursors and final CZTS films. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) shows that pre-annealing of the precursors can improve depth homogeneity of the CZTS films. Photoluminescence spectra and the optical band gap energy values are compatible with literature. Selected samples were processed to solar cells and characterized.