Low-intensity vibrations normalize adipogenesis-induced morphological and molecular changes of adult mesenchymal stem cells
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that are committed to adipogenesis were exposed daily to high-frequency low-intensity mechanical vibrations to understand molecular, morphological and ultrastructural adaptations to mechanical signals during adipogenesis. D1-ORL-UVA mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with either growth or adipogenic medium for 1 week. Low-intensity vibration signals (15 min/day, 90 Hz, 0.1 g) were applied to one group of adipogenic cells, while the other adipogenic group served as a sham control. Cellular viability, lipid accumulation, ultrastructure and morphology were determined with MTT, Oil-Red-O staining, phalloidin staining and atomic force microscopy. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed expression profile of the genes responsible for adipogenesis and ultrastructure of cells. Low-intensity vibration signals increased viability of the cells in adipogenic culture that was reduced significantly compared to quiescent controls. Low-intensity vibration signals also normalized the effects of adipogenic condition on cell morphology, including area, perimeter, circularization and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, low-intensity vibration signals reduced the expression of some adipogenic markers significantly. Mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive and responsive to mechanical loads, but debilitating conditions such as aging or obesity may steer mesenchymal stem cells toward adipogenesis. Here, daily application of low-intensity vibration signals partially neutralized the effects of adipogenic induction on mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that these signals may provide an alternative and/or complementary option to reduce fat deposition.