Use of spent foundry sand and fly ash for the development of green self-consolidating concrete
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In the United States alone, the foundry industry discards up to 10 million tons of sand each year, offering up a plentiful potential resource to replace sand in concrete products. However, because the use of spent foundry sand (SFS) is currently very limited in the concrete industry, this study investigates whether SFS can successfully be used as a sand replacement material in cost-effective, green, self-consolidating concrete (SCC). In the study, SCC mixtures were developed to be even more inexpensive and environmentally friendly by incorporating Portland cement with fly ash (FA). Tests done on SCC mixtures to determine fresh properties (slump flow diameter, slump flow time, V-funnel flow time, yield stress, and relative viscosity), compressive strength, drying shrinkage and transport properties (rapid chloride permeability and volume of permeable pores) show that replacing up to 100% of sand with SFS and up to 70% Portland cement with FA enables the manufacture of green, lower cost SCC mixtures with proper fresh, mechanical and durability properties. The beneficial effects of FA compensate for some possible detrimental effects of SFS.