Effects of different lipopolysaccharide preparations on neutrophil function in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque
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The fish innate immune response to pathogensrelies on the adequate function of neu trophilicgranulocytes (Palic´, Andreasen, Herolt, Menzel &Roth 2006). The ability of neutrophils to phago-cytose microor ganisms and cellular debris is essen-tial for normal development an d survival of animalpopulations (Segal 2005). The evaluation of neu-trophil function is valuable for assessing the healthstatus of individuals and fish populations (Smith &Lumsden 1983). Resistance of fishes to septic shockand tolerance to high concentrations of lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) was observed as a major differencebetween mammalian and fish innate immuneresponses (Berczi, Bertok & Bereznai 1966). Thisfunctional difference could be attri buted to severalcostimulatory molecules and intracellular mediatorsbeing absent in fish, but active in mammals duringresponse to LPS stimulation (Iliev, Roach, Mac-kenzie, Planas & Goetz 2005). Most fish do notpossess a Toll-like receptor (TLR) with sequencesimilarity to mammalian TLR4 (Leulier & Lemai-tre 2008) and the ones that do have no ability forTLR4 downstream signalling (Sepulcre, Alcaraz-Perez, Lopez-Munoz, Roca, Meseguer, Cayuela &Mulero 2009). Regardless of the absence andfunctionality of TLR4 and costimulatory molecules,bacterial LPS can induce a robus t inflammatorygene response in innate immune fish cells, but atconcentrations 1000-fold higher than is commonlyobserved in mammalian species ( lgmL)1vs.ng mL)1) (Palic´, Ostojic, Andreasen & Roth2007; Mackenzie, Roher, Boltan˜a & Goetz 2010).In contrast, ultrapure LPS preparations are rela-tively inactive in fish (Iliev et al. 2005).