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dc.contributor.authorBöke, Hasan
dc.contributor.authorGauri, K. Lal
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-31T13:26:53Z
dc.date.available2016-05-31T13:26:53Z
dc.date.issued2003-01
dc.identifier.citationBöke, H., and Gauri, K. L. (2003). Reducing marble-SO2 reaction rate by the application of certain surfactants. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 142(1-4), 59-70. doi:10.1023/A:1022016513965en_US
dc.identifier.issn0049-6979
dc.identifier.urihttp://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022016513965
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11147/4695
dc.description.abstractSulfur dioxide (SO2), prevalent in the modern urban environment of industrial countries, attacks calcite (CaCO3) in marble. As a result, a gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) crust is produced at rain-sheltered surfaces while areas exposed to rain experience accelerated erosion. We have investigated the effect of certain surfactants as protective agents against SO2 attack. We report that the anions oxalate (C2O4-2) and oleate (C17H33COO-) from solutions of their highly soluble alkali salt species are able to replace carbonate (CO3-2) in calcite producing less reactive substrate of oxalate and oleate of calcium. Experiments to measure the protection obtained by these treatments were carried out in the laboratory and field conditions at nearly 1 ppm and 10 ppb SO2 concentrations, respectively. We found that these treatments provided significant protection to marble exposed in sheltered areas, up to 30% reduction of reaction rate by treatment with 2 × 10-4 M sodium oleate and up to 14% by a 2 × 10-3 M with potassium oxalate solutions, but become ineffective over long term exposure when applied to surfaces exposed to rain. Carrara marble was used in the reported study. Ion chromatography was the analytical tool, which allowed precise measurements of ionic concentrations of these salts, the amount of their uptake by marble, and the thickness of the gypsum crust. X-ray diffraction allowed determination of the new minerals formed at the marble surface by the treatment with surfactants.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation for the grant no. BES-9711087en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherKluwer Academic Publishersen_US
dc.relation.isversionof10.1023/A:1022016513965en_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.subjectGypsumen_US
dc.subjectMarbleen_US
dc.subjectOleateen_US
dc.subjectOxalateen_US
dc.subjectSulfur dioxideen_US
dc.subjectAir pollutionen_US
dc.titleReducing marble-SO2 reaction rate by the application of certain surfactantsen_US
dc.typereviewen_US
dc.contributor.authorIDTR2086en_US
dc.contributor.iztechauthorBöke, Hasan
dc.relation.journalWater, Air, and Soil Pollutionen_US
dc.contributor.departmentIzmir Institute of Technology. Architectural Restorationen_US
dc.identifier.volume142en_US
dc.identifier.issue1-4en_US
dc.identifier.startpage59en_US
dc.identifier.endpage70en_US
dc.identifier.wosWOS:000181303900005
dc.identifier.scopusSCOPUS:2-s2.0-0347297500


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