A health risk assessment for exposure to trace metals via drinking water ingestion pathway
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A health risk assessment was conducted for exposure to trace metals via drinking water ingestion pathway for Province of İzmir, Turkey. Concentrations of 11 trace metals were measured in drinking waters collected from 100 population weighted random sampling units (houses). The samples were analyzed in atomic absorption spectrometry for arsenic, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. Questionnaires were administered to a participant from each sampling unit to determine drinking water consumption related information and demographics. Exposure and risks were estimated for each individual by direct calculation, and for İzmir population by Monte Carlo simulation. Six trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) were detected in >50% of the samples. Concentrations of As and Ni exceeded the corresponding standards in 20% and 58% of the samples, respectively. As a result, arsenic noncarcinogenic risks were higher than the level of concern for 19% of the population, whereas carcinogenic risks were >10-4 for 46%, and >10-6 for 90% of the population.