Propagation of waves in porous media
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Wave propagation in porous media is of interest in various diversified areas of science and engineering. The theory of the phenomenon has been studied extensively in soil mechanics, seismology, acoustics, earthquake engineering, ocean engineering, geophysics, and many other disciplines. This review presents a general survey of the literature within the context of porous media mechanics. Following a review of the Biot's theory of wave propagation in linear, elastic, fluid saturated porous media which has been the basis of many analyses, we present various analytical and numerical solutions obtained by several researchers. Biot found that there are two dilatational waves and one rotational wave in a saturated porous medium. It has been noted that the second kind of dilatational wave is highly attenuated and is associated with a diffusion type process. The influence of coupling between two phases has a decreasing effect on the first kind wave and an increasing effect on the second wave. Procedures to predict the liquefaction of soils due to earthquakes have been reviewed in detail. Extension of Biot's theory to unsaturated soils has been discussed, and it was noted that, in general, equations developed for saturated media were employed for unsaturated media by replacing the density and compressibility terms with modified values for a water-air mixture. Various approaches to determine the permeability of porous media from attenuation of dilatational waves have been described in detail. Since the prediction of acoustic wave speeds and attenuations in marine sediments has been extensively studied in geophysics, these studies have been reviewed along with the studies on dissipation of water waves at ocean bottoms. The mixture theory which has been employed by various researchers in continuum mechanics is also discussed within the context of this review. Then, we present an alternative approach to obtain governing equations of wave propagation in porous media from macroscopic balance equations. Finally, we present an analysis of wave propagation in fractured porous media saturated by two immiscible fluids.