Quasi-static axial crushing behavior of aluminum closed cell foam-filled multi-packed aluminum and composite/aluminum hybrid tubes
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The axial crushing behavior of empty and Al close-cell foam-filled Al multi-tube designs (hexagonal and square) and E-glass woven fabric polyester composite and Al hybrid tubes were investigated through quasi-static compression testing. The effects of foam filling on the deformation mode and the crushing and average crushing loads of single tubes and multi-tube designs were determined. Although foam filling increased the energy absorption in single Al tube and multi-tube designs, it was not effective in increasing the specific absorbed energy over that of the empty Al tube. However, multi-tube designs were found to be energetically more effective than single tubes at similar foam filler densities, proving a higher interaction effect in multi-tube designs. Empty composite and empty hybrid tubes crushed predominantly in progressive crushing mode, without applying any triggering mechanism. Foam filling was found to be ineffective in increasing the crushing loads of the composite tubes over the sum of the crushing loads of empty composite tube and foam. However, foam filling stabilized the composite progressive crushing mode. In empty hybrid tubes, the deformation mode of the inner Al tube was found to be a more complex form of the diamond mode of deformation of empty Al tube, leading to higher crushing load values than the sum of the crushing load values of empty composite tube and empty metal tube.