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Dry deposition fluxes and mass size distributions of Pb, Cu, and Zn measured in Southern Lake Michigan during AEOLOS
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As part of the Atmospheric Exchange Over Lakes and Oceans Study (AEOLOS) the dry deposition fluxes and atmospheric size distributions (ASDs) of anthropogenic metals were measured over the southern basin of Lake Michigan. The measurements were made during winter, summer, and fall, concurrently, in Chicago, IL; over Lake Michigan onboard the U.S. EPA RV Lake Guardian; and in South Haven, MI. The flux of Pb, Cu, and Zn was substantially higher in Chicago than in either South Haven or over Lake Michigan. The average measured Pb, Cu, and Zn fluxes were 0.07, 0.06, and 0.20 mg m-2 day-1 in Chicago; 0.003, 0.01, and 0.01 mg m-2 day-1 over Lake Michigan; and 0.004, 0.007, and 0.004 mg m-2 day-1 in South Haven. When the wind was from Chicago over the lake, the fluxes and concentrations measured over the lake were higher than when the wind was from other directions. In general, these anthropogenic metals had higher concentrations in the fine particle mode than in the coarse particle mode. Modeled and measured fluxes were in reasonable agreement. Coarse particles were found to be responsible for the majority of the flux at all locations.