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Cr (VI) removal with natural, surfactant modified and bacteria loaded zeolites
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The objective of the study is to determine the bacteria removal performances of the local clinoptilolite rich mineral and its surfactant modified forms and to investigate potential applications of clinoptilolite rich mineral, surfactant modified clinoptilolite rich mineral and bacteria loaded forms in Cr (VI) sorption. Characterizations of clinoptilolite rich mineral and its modified forms were studied. Batch sorption experiments were performed and the effects of the parameters such as pH, initial concentration, agitation speed, particle size and temperature were investigated. Sorption kinetic data were analysed by external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion, pseudo first and second order models. Intraparticle diffusion model results indicated that sorption of Cr (VI) on the sorbents was a multi-step process, involving external and intraparticle diffusion. Effective diffusion coefficient results implied that Cr (VI) sorption process was not solely intraparticle diffusion controlled and external film diffusion was also effective. Biot number (100-3000) results indicated that Cr (VI) sorption process was mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The sorption reaction model results revealed that sorption of Cr (VI) onto sorbents was well represented by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Sorption isotherm model results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm fitted well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis, Gibbs energy change (<-20 kJ/mol), entropy change of sorption (<-0.2 kJ/mol K), enthalpy change (<-100kJ/mol) and activation energy (<40 kJ/mol) showed that sorption process was exothermic, spontaneous and physical sorption.