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Local oxidation nanolithography on Hf thin films using atomic force microscopy (AFM)
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Well controlled Hf oxide patterns have been grown on a flat Hf thin film surface produced by the dc magnetron sputtering method on Si and SiOx substrates. These patterns have been created by using the technique of semi-contact scanning probe lithography (SC-SPL). The thickness and width of the oxide patterns have been measured as a function of applied voltage, duration and relative humidity. There is a threshold voltage even at 87% humidity, due to insufficient energy required to start the oxide growth process for a measurable oxide protrusion. Electrical characterization was also performed via the I-V curves of Hf and HfOx structures, and the resistivity of HfO x was found to be 4.284 × 109 Ω cm. In addition to the I-V curves, electric force microscopy and spreading surface resistance images of Hf and HfOx were obtained.