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Kinematic wave model for transient bed profiles in alluvial channels under nonequilibrium conditions
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Transient bed profiles in alluvial channels are generally modeled using diffusion (or dynamic) waves and assuming equilibrium between detachment and deposition rates. Equilibrium sediment transport can be considerably affected by an excess (or deficiency) of sediment supply due to mostly flows during flash floods or floods resulting from dam break or dike failure. In such situations the sediment transport process occurs under nonequilibrium conditions, and extensive changes in alluvial river morphology can take place over a relatively short period of time. Therefore the study and prediction of these changes are important for sustainable development and use of river water. This study hence developed a mathematical model based on the kinematic wave theory to model transient bed profiles in alluvial channels under nonequilibrium conditions. The kinematic wave theory employs a functional relation between sediment transport rate and concentration, the shear-stress approach for flow transport capacity, and a relation between flow velocity and depth. The model satisfactorily simulated transient bed forms observed in laboratory experiments.